"I have used Zebra printers in the past so I am very familiar with their rugged, 24-hour continuous duty cycles," says Amanatides. "I chose an all-metal Zebra printer because we need a reliable solution that is flexible for our various printing applications."
Using about 30 of Zebra's Xi series printers, Celera is able to print 300 dpi (dots per inch) labels containing barcodes and text.With the superior clarity of these labels, employees can print small labels for DNA samples or strand labelling without sacrificing readability or scanning quality.
"We have an unusual need to label very small items, and can't risk sacrificing print quality," Amanatides says. "With the Xi series printers, our labels come out sharp, remain clear through our processes, and scan accurately every time. In our business, that is the kind of reliability we depend upon."
At Celera, virtually everything is barcode-labeled, including machinery, employee badges, samples, plates, back-up tapes, and legal files.
"We developed the software in-house to monitor our entire system, basing it on the accuracy of barcode label scanning," says Amanatides. "From the first step to the final stored, sequenced code, barcode scanning drives the procedures."
When Celera receives samples of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid - the building blocks of genes) from vendors, an employee immediately prints a label and affixes it to the container. The label has both a barcode and human-readable text detailing the contents. Samples are moved to the storage labs until needed for DNA testing.When production requests a sample, a Celera technician scans the barcode label and updates the database to show that the sample has been moved from storage into production. Next, the sample is prepared for duplication. The technician places the DNA into a bio-acid dish, where it is inserted into bacteria and grown.
Once the lab has a sufficient amount of replicated DNA to begin testing, the technician puts the DNA samples onto plates similar to large petri dishes—each tagged with a barcode label. The barcode on the original sample container and the plate labels are scanned, automatically notifying the system of the sample transfer.
The technician scans the plates one at a time into a Q-bot, a machine driven by a Celeradeveloped software programme that strategically chooses the most viable and concentrated strands of DNA and places them into a Tomtech pipeting liquid instrument located within the Q-bot. The Tomtech instrument transfers the selected DNA onto a new plate, then the technician removes the original plate and scans the barcode on the new plate as the superior DNA is removed from the machine.
"With barcodes to track the DNA through technologically advanced machines such as the Q-bot, we have found that humans contain about 30,000 to 35,000 genes—only twice as many as a fruit fly," says Amanatides. "Humans are also 99.9 percent genetically identical, differing only by approximately 2.1 million genetic letters."
Once the technician removes the new plates from the Q-bot, he or she thoroughly cleans the DNA and removes all bacteria. The clean DNA is transferred to the plasma lab, again through barcode scanning, where a technician purifies it and transfers it to a new plate. The technician scans out the new plate and sends the DNA to the sequencing chemistry lab, where it is scanned in and the cycle sequencing reaction begins.
The DNA is sent through a formide lab for further cleaning, after which a technician scans it into the sequencing machines to complete the three-hour-long process of analyzing all of the strands and putting them in order.With a Celera-created software programme driving the sequencing procedure, all the data is collected and sent to the data centre for assembly and code sequencing.